Unit 8: Vocabulary

To pass this unit, please study the 17 vocabulary words below.
acronym
an abbreviation; a way of writing a longer string of words more concisely
IT is an acronym for Information Technology.
bandwidth
a measurement of the capacity of data which can be moved between two points in a given period of time
The website performed very poorly because it was graphically heavy and required more bandwidth than was available.
benchmark
a measurement or standard that serves as a point of reference by which process performance is measured
The magazine article used PCMark 7 scores as a benchmark for computer performance.
bit (binary digit)
the smallest unit of storage; normally referred to as a '1' or '0'
The DBA "flipped a bit" in the database, changing a value from a 0 to 1.
byte (binary term)
8 bits
One byte of data is enough memory to hold a single ASCII character.
fault tolerance
The ability of a system component to fail without causing the entire system to shut down; this is often accomplished with redundancy
Due to low fault tolerances in the new gaming console's GPU, the manufacturer had to issue a total recall.
FLOPS (floating point operations per second)
a common measurement of computer speed dealing with decimal calculations in a given amount of time
The more FLOPS a computer can do, the faster it is.
frequency
the number of cycles per unit time of a sound wave, most often measured in hertz
The new processor ran at much higher frequency than the one it replaced, going from 1.8 GHZ up to 4 GHZ.
G (giga)
one billion
The word giga originally comes from the Greek word for 'giant'.
Hz (hertz)
an internationally used frequency unit; equals one cycle per second
A human being can hear sound waves from 20Hz to 20,000Hz.
IPS (instructions per second)
an very raw measurement of computer processor speed
IPS is a base measurement of computer speed often expressed in millions (MIPS).
K (kilo)
one thousand
A kilobyte is 1024 bytes.
M (mega)
one million
One megabyte is 1,048,576 bytes.
µ (micro)
one millionth
Although micro means "one-millionth", many people use it to express simply "a great deal of smallness."
m (milli)
a prefix meaning one thousandth
One millitesla is one-thousandth of a tesla.
n (nano)
one billionth
The teacher said the word "nano" can also be used for anything very small, such as nanotechnology.
T (tera)
one trillion
There are 1,099,511,627,776 bytes in a terabyte.
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