Unit 3: Vocabulary

To pass this unit, please study the 15 vocabulary words below.
CLI (command line interface)
a text-only link between a computer and its operator
The technician enjoyed administering the Unix server with the CLI tools.
compression
a method of packing data in order to save disk storage space or download time
Zip and mp3 are two common file compression examples.
device driver
software which converts the data from a component or peripheral into data that an operating system can use
The IT support technician asked the end user if he had recently updated any device drivers.
file permissions
a set of strict rules for controlling read, write, and execute access to a file or directory
The company switched from FAT32 to NTFS file system because the former did not support file permissions.
format
prepare a device to store data, erasing any existing data
One must format a flash memory drive or a hard disk drive before it can used to store data.
GUI (graphical user interface)
an icon based link between a computer and its operator
Most users prefer an icon-based GUI over a command line option.
hidden file
a file which does not appear by default in a directory listing; normally for security reasons or to spare confusion in end users
The administrator was upset when the end user found a way to display and then delete several hidden files.
kernel
the fundamental part of an operating system responsible for providing access to the machine's hardware
The system administrator needed to upgrade the kernel in order to provide native support for Serial ATA drives.
Linux
an open source version of Unix developed by a volunteer team of programmers around the world
Linux was originally developed by Linus Torvalds, who wanted a free Unix-like operating system that ran on standard PC hardware.
log off
to terminate a connection to a computer or network
The server was set to automatically log off users after 10 minutes of inactivity.
log on
to enter information related to an account name and its password in order to access a computer resource
The computer user could not log on because he forgot his username and password.
multitasking
concurrent execution of two or more tasks by a processor
UNIX is the original multitasking environment and was designed from the beginning to share resources over a network.
OS (operating system)
a GUI or CLI software link between the computer and operator; also provides a framework for productivity software such as an office suite, web browser, or programming languages
The programmer tested his Java code on many operating systems including: Windows, Linux, and Macintosh.
VM (virtual machine)
a software program which mimics the performance of one or more hardware devices in order to run software independently of the actual hardware
In order to run Java programs in Windows one needs to download an appropriate virtual machine.
X (X Window System)
a software toolkit for UNIX systems underlying numerous GUI window managers including KDE and Gnome
The man was surprised at how similar in functionality X was to Microsoft Windows.
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